Belajar Bahasa Inggris

Belajar Bahasa Inggris Lewat Internet

Belajar Bahasa Inggris – Pelajaran 5

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KOSAKATA

  • ballon = balon
  • birthday = ulang tahun
  • celebrate = merayakan
  • compensate = mengimbangi
  • delay (kata kerja) – menunda
  • (be) determined = ditetapkan
  • enemy = musuh
  • exhaust (kata kerja) = melelahkan
  • extra = tambahan
  • hurt = luka
  • ignore = tidak memperdulikan
  • niece = keponakan perempuan
  • profits = keuntungan
  • protect = melindungi
  • somehow = bagaimanapun juga
  • spend (money) (kata kerja) = membelanjakan (uang)
  • trouble (kata benda dan kata kerja) = kesukaran
  • the Tube = kereta api bawah tanah
  • wherever = ke mana saja

UNGKAPAN

  • Thank goodness. (untung). Contoh: Thank goodness there was a doctor there when you felt ill.
  • In time. (Pada waktunya). Contoh: She didn’t arrive in time to catch the train.
  • On time. (Tepat pada waktunya). Contoh: He was’nt late. He arrived on time.
  • Many happy returns of the day! (Selamat ulang tahun!). Contoh: As it was his birthday I wished him many happy returns of the day.
  • The time of our lives. (Merasa sangat bahagia). Contoh: With all this money we shall have the time of our lives.
  • To see the sights. (Melihat pemandangan). Contoh: Have you seen the sight of Paris?
  • To rush about. (Lari). Contoh: He rushed about with amazing energy.
  • To feel small. (Merasa malu, merasa dirinya kecil). Contoh: It was my fault I felt so small.
  • At first. (Pada mulanya). Contoh: At first I didn’t like him.

PERCAKAPAN

Barbara dan Harry dijemput Peter, anak mereka, dan Pamela, pacar Peter, di stasiun Victoria.

Barbara : Peter! How wonderful to see you! Oh what a journey we’ve had! But being with you for a few days will compensate for everything.

Peter : Thank goodness I arrived in time to meet you. I was delayed in the Tube. I said to myself: “I will get there on time! I must get there!” And somehow I did!

Harry : Well, what are we going to do now?

Peter : First, I must introduce a great friend of mine to you. Pamela - my parents. Pamela will help to show you round London.

Pamela : How do you do?

Harry and Barbara : How do you do?

Peter : It’s Pamela birthday today.

Barbara and Harry : Oh, many happy returns of the day!

Peter : There really are a lot of things to celebrate! but first, shall we go to the hotel? Porter, will you call a taxi please?

Pamela : Are you tired after the journey?

Harry : Yes, exhausted.

Barbara : Well, darling, if you will have long arguments wherever you go

Pamela : Arguments?

Barbara : My husband had an argument with the Costums Officer.

Peter : Well, I’ll protect you in London, Father. You won’t get into any trouble I’m with you. We’re going to have the time of our lives. Father will sell his invention and Mother will spend the profits in the shops. We’ll see all the sight, and go to all the theatres and restaurants.

Pamela : What d’you think of Victoria Station?

Barbara : What a busy place it is! Everyone seems to be rushing about ignoring everyone else.

Peter : London’s like that! You feel very small here at first and then you start rushing about yourself and you grow bigger and bigger and the city grows smaller and smaller!

Barbara : Peter! You talk about Landon as if it were a big ballon!

Harry : Or an inflatable umbrella!

CATATAN
KATA YANG MENYATAKAN WAKTU YANG AKAN DATANG SHALL DAN WILL

Pada orang pertama, bentuk akan datang shall dan will dipakai tanpa peraturan tertentu. Meskipun demikian ada keadaan-keadaan tertentu dimana pemakaian shall untuk  menggantikan will (atau kebalikannya), akan aneh kedengarannya bagi orang Inggris. Dengan alasan ini pelajar asing harus berusaha mengikuti peraturan-peraturan umum tertentu mengenai pemakaian shall dan will, walaupun ia tidak perlu heran apabila mendengar peraturan-peraturan tersebut dilanggar dalam percakapan sehari-hari.

Pure future

I shall go.
You will go.
He, she, will go.
We shall go.
You will go.
They will go.

Shall dan will dipakai menurut aturan di atas bila sesuatu akan terjadi di waktu yang akan datang tanpa adanya keinginan atau kemauan dari pihak pembicara.

I shall be fifty tomorrow.
We shall receive presents at Christmas.
He will be ill if he eats that.

Kehendak

Jika kita memutuskan untuk mengerjakan sesuatu di waktu yang akan datang, kita bisa memakai will sebagai pengganti shall pada orang pertama dan memberi tekanan pada kata itu untuk menunjukkan kemuan kita:

I will get there on time.
We won’t help you.
I promise you I will do everything I can.

Sebaiknya, jika seseorang menghendaki orang lain agar melakukan atau tidak melakukan sesuatu, tekanan diberikan dengan menggunakan shall sebagai pengganti will untuk orang kedua dan ketiga:

The enemy shall not pass.
He shan’t hurt you.
You shall work hard.

Perpendekan

Dalam percakapan shall dan will biasa disingkat menjadi ‘ill, jadi meniadakan perbedaan antara keduanya pada kalimat positif.

You’ll work hard.
I’ll get there on time.

Tapi dalam kalimat yang negatif, perbedaannya masih tetap ada.

She shan’t hurt you.
We won’t help you.

Pertanyaan

Perpendekan tidak mungkin kita dapati pada pertanyaan-pertanyaan positif. Sebab pembicara tidak akan menyatakan kemauannya dalam bentuk pertanyaan, maka biasanya yang dipakai pure future, bahkan juga bila mengajukan suatu permintaan:

Shall we go to the hotel?
Will you fetch us a taxi please?
When will they stop being a nuisance?

Will untuk menyatakan kebiasaan yang dilakukan terus menerus.

Will juga dipergunakan untuk menyatakan kebiasaan yang dilakukan secara terus menerus. Dalam hal ini, will diberi tekanan dalam percakapan:

If you will have arguments wherever you go …
Why will he leave his things all over the floor?
He will not wash before he goes to bed.

Going to

Untuk menyatakan waktu yang akan datang, selain shall dan will juga dipakai going to diikuti infinitif. Going to biasanya menyatakan maksud atau harapan tertentu di hati pembicara.

Going to menyatakan suatu kepastian.

It’s going to rain tomorrow.
We’re going to have the time of our lives.
I’m going to learn English next year.

Seperti shall dan will going to bisa dipakai dengan bentuk pertanyaan:

What are we going to do now?
Are you going to tell him everything?
When is he going to call a taxi?

Bentuk sedang dapat berarti Akan.

Bila akan berbicara mengenai sesuatu yang akan segera terjadi di waktu yang akan datang serta menyebutkan kapan itu terjadi, kita bisa menggunakan bentuk sedang – terutama dengan kata-kata kerja yang menyatakan gerak seperti, go, come, leave, dan sebagainya.

I’m leaving Paris this evening.
He’s going to Oxford tomorrow.
Mrs. James is coming to tea this afternoon.

HOW DO YOU DO?

Perhatikan bahwa inilah apa yang Anda katakan bila Anda diperkenalkan dengan orang lain. Orang lain tersebut menjawab How do you do pula. Ungkapan ini tidak mempunyai arti yang persis bila diterjemahkan, sebab hanya merupakan ucapan yang sudah menjadi kebiasaan.

IF IT THERE

Dalam percakapan Barbara mengatakan, “You talk about London as if it were a big ballon.” Ini adalah bentuk pengandaian dalam waktu lampau di dalam bahasa Inggris, yang di pakai dengan kata-kata kerja to be dan kata ganti orang tunggal bila kita menyatakan sesuatu yang tidak bisa terjadi.

If I were king (but I’m not).
If he were clever (but he isn’t)

Bentuk pengandaian hanya ada sedikit di dalam bahasa Inggris, dan yang ada itu pun semakin jarang di pakai.

KATA DEPAN

To introduce a person to somebody
To show someone round London.
To get into trouble.
This will compensate for everything.
To protect someone from something.

KATA KERJA TIDAK BERATURAN

PRESENT PAST PERFECT
to grow I grow I grew I have grown
to hurt I hurt I hurt I have hurt
to spend I spend I spent I have spent

LATIHAN

1. Letakkan kata-kata berikut pada kalimat-kalimat yang sesuai, ubahlah di mana perlu: to see the sights; in time; at first; to fell small; the time of our lives; on time; up and down; thank goodness; to call a taxi.

  1. ….. I couldn’t understand anything but later it was easier.
  2. ….. you arrived ….. to help me.
  3. He won’t arrive at work …..
  4. The porter walked ….. the platform.
  5. The party was so gay that really had …..
  6. When I went to Paris as a tourist I tried ….. in three days.
  7. The student ….. very ….. because he couldn’t answer such an easy question.
  8. I’a tired of walking. Let’s …..

2. Bubuhkan kata depan yang benar ke dalam kalimat-kalimat berikut:

  1. We talked ….. politics all night.
  2. I shall compensate you ….. your trouble
  3. Please introduce me ….. your sister.
  4. He is going to show us ….. the Vatican.
  5. The business man arrived ….. time to catch the train.
  6. You must protect us ….. our enemies …..
  7. The soldier is often rude and often gets ….. trouble.
  8. She spends so long dressing that she never arrives ….. time.
  9. ….. first I disliked him but later I grew to like him better.

3. Bentuk ucapan berikut menyatakan waktu yang akan datang. Sempurnakanlah ‘ll ke dalam bentuk lengkapnya, shall dan will sebagaimana mestinya:

  1. I’ll see you tomorrow.
  2. They’ll bring you your book.
  3. We’ll speak to your father.
  4. She’ll take the little boy to the park.
  5. You’ll have to spend your money well.
  6. It’ll rain this afternoon.

4. Isilah titik-titik dalam kalimat-kalimat berikut dengan shall dan will untuk menyatakan kemauan pembicara:

  1. I ….. go and you ….. not prevent me.
  2. He says that you ….. work wheter you like it or not.
  3. She ….. not marry her servant!
  4. We ….. come in! It’s our house.
  5. They ….. do what I tell them to!

5. Pakailah going to pada kalimat-kalimat berikut untuk menyatakan maksud atau kepastian sebagai pengganti shall dan will:

  1. I shall visit him on Sunday.
  2. There will be a fuss.
  3. He will get into trouble if he’s not careful.
  4. The girl be very tall when she’s a woman.
  5. It will be very difficult to stop him.
  6. Yo’ll not find it easy.

6. Ubahlah ke dalam bentuk present continuous:

  1. He’ll play football this afternoon.
  2. I’ll leave the house at three o’clock.
  3. They will visit Parliament on Tuesday.
  4. Afterward our friends will come to lunch.
  5. I shall see him at the office before I go home.
  6. What will you do on Sunday?


    Written by 5jtpbln

    October 5, 2010 at 4:34 am

    Posted in Pelajaran

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