Belajar Bahasa Inggris

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Belajar Bahasa Inggris – Pelajaran 33

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KOSAKATA

  • apply (to) = melamar (ke)
  • chance (kata benda) = kesempatan
  • credit facilities = fasilitas kredit
  • door bell = bel pintu
  • keep on (continue) (kata kerja) = terus, meneruskan
  • offer (kata kerja) = menawarkan
  • rather (kata keterangan) = lebih suka
  • somewhat (kata sifat) = agak
  • spare (kata sifat) = kelebihan
  • strengthen = memperkuat
  • traffic lights = lampu lalu lintas
  • unfamiliar = tidak di kenal
  • unless = jika tidak

UNGKAPAN

  • I hadn’t a chance. (Saya tidak berhasil). Contoh: He tried hard but he hadn’t a chance.
  • The Home Office. (Departemen Dalam Negeri).
  • On my behalf. (Atas nama saya). Contoh: Please thank him on my behalf.
  • Work out. (Berhasil). Contoh: I’m sure your plans will work out in the end.
  • Have you any idea? (Apakah kau tahu?). Contoh: Have any idea of the time?
  • If only. (Seandainya). Contoh: If only I had more money.

PERCAKAPAN

Harry baru saja mengunjungi pedagang perantaranya, sedangkan Peter ke Departemen Dalam Negeri untuk minta keterangan tentang mendapatkan pekerjaan di Inggris. Mereka bertemu di sebuah jalan di London dan sekarang sedang membicarakan apa yang terjadi.

Harry : No, I hadn’t a chance. He explained very nicely, of course, that credit facilities hadn’t got any better since last year and that the company didn’t have any spare money for new inventions.

Peter : Oh, that’s a pity!

Harry : You know, he just sat there in his office and kept on offering me tea — as if that was what I wanted. “Will you have some tea?” were almost the first words he said to me and “Won’t you really have any tea?” were almost the last.

Peter : Perhaps he left you needed strengthening.

Harry : Perhaps. What happened to you?

Peter : Oh, I got some of the information I needed, but I think it’s going to be rather difficult to get the work I want here. I’ll have to persuade some employer to apply to the Home Office on my behalf, saying he wants me rather than anyone else to work for him.

Harry : Everything certainly is difficult over here.

Peter : I suppose it’s always like that when one first goes abroad. But perhaps it will all work out for you when you go and see Pamela’s M.P.

Harry : By the way, have you any idea where we are?

Peter : Well — actually — no, I know we passed some traffic lights but —

Harry : Oh, I thought you knew where you were going.

Peter : And I thought you did. (Mereka tertawa).

Harry : Why don’t you ask someone?

Peter : Alraight. (Ia menyapa orang lewat). Excuse me. Could you give me some help? (Orang laki-laki itu menjawab dalam bahasa yang tidak di kenal).

Harry : Well, I’m quite sure he’s not English! Ask that lady.

Peter : All right. Excuse me — (Wanita itu menjawab dalam bahasa lain lagi yang tidak dikenal).

Harry : Well it seems to be somewhat difficult to find an Englishman! Perhaps we aren’t in London at all.

Peter : (Tertawa). You mean because we’ve walked so far!

Harry : If only we could find a policeman. I haven’t any idea where we are.

Peter : Perhaps we could ask at one of these house? There must be some Englishman somewhere who could help us.

Harry : Shall I ring a doorbell?

Peter : Why not?

Harry : Which one?

Peter : It doesn’t matter. Any of them will do. (Bunyi bell).

Harry : Well, let’s see what happens now!

CATATAN
SOME DAN ANY

Anda mungkin mengetahui aturan umum bahwa some dipakai dalam kalimat positif sedangkan any dipakai dalam kalimat tanya dan kalimat negatif:

  • I saw someone in your garden yesterday.
  • I didn’t see anyone in your garden yesterday.
  • Did you see anyone in your garden yesterday?

Sayangnya aturan ini, seperti banyak aturan dalam bahasa Inggris, hanya merupakan aturan umum, dan ada pertimbangan-pertimbangan lain yang harus diperhatikan. Marilah kita membahas seluruh masalah mengenai some dan any.

Kalimat positif

Some dipakai bila kita sedang berpikir mengenai hal atau orang tertentu yang identitas sebenarnya tidak perlu kita ketahui. Perhatikan kalimat yang dipakai Peter dalam percakapan: There must be some Englishman somewhere who could help us. Di sisi Peter sedang berpikir mengenai seorang Inggris pada suatu tempat tertentu yang mungkin bisa membantunya, walaupun ia tidak mengetahui identitas tempat itu maupun orang Inggrisnya. Perhatikan juga contoh-contoh ini:

  • I’ll have to persuade some employer to apply on my behalf.
  • Some writer said that envy was man’s worst enemy.
  • I’m sure there’s some place in the world where I could be happy.
  • She will find some man to marry her.

Some juga dipakai bila kita sedang berpikir mengenai jumlah yang besarnya tidak kita tentukan:

  • Give me some tea.
  • I shall buy some eggs.

Sebaliknya, any dipakai bila kita tidak bicara mengenai hal atau orang tertentu:

  • Any room will do.
  • I shall give you everything you want.
  • You can make up story for him.
  • He wants me rather than anyone else to work for him.

Mungkin perbedaan antara some dan any akan lebih jelas, jika anda membandingkan pasangan-pasangan kalimat berikut:

I want some blue and white flowers.
I want any flowers you have.

Take some books for the journey.
Take any book you like.

Please read me some poems of Keats.
Please read me any poem in the book.

Kalimat tanya

Di sini penggunaan some dan any tergantung pada situasi. Pertanyaan dengan some mengharapkan jawaban positif. Maka dari itu, pertanyaan tersebut mungkin menjadi perintah atau permintaan sopan:

  • Can’t we have some roast beef?
  • Will you have some tea?
  • Could you give me some help?

Sebaliknya, any dipakai dalam kalimat tanya, bila kita mengharapkan jawaban negatif:

  • Won’t you really have any tea?

Atau bila diperlukan keterangan:

  • Have you any eggs?
  • Have you had any lunch?

Kalimat negatif

Dalam kalimat negatif kita biasanya tidak menggunakan some:

  • I didn’t offer him any money.
  • We haven’t seem any traffic lights.
  • I haven’t any idea where we are.
  • The company didn’t have any spare money.

Kata majemuk

Semua aturan dasar diatas berlaku pula untuk kata mejemuk some dan any: something, anything, somewhere, dan sebagainya. Perhatikan perbedaannya:

  • Is somebody there? (Positif belief: I think someone is).
  • Is anybody there? (I don’t know and I want to know).
  • Has someone taken my bicycle? (I’m not sure: I want to know).

Penggunaan some dan any sendiri

Perhatikan pula bahwa some dan any bisa dipakai sendiri apabila hal atau orang yang dibicarakan sudah diketahui;

  • Some came and some stayed at home.
  • I have forgotten my cigarettes. Have you any?

SOME OF: ANY OF

Di sini juga berlaku aturan yang sama.

  • I’ve got some of information I wanted.
  • Any of these rooms will do.
  • Could you give me some of that cake?
  • Have you taken any of my cigarettes?

ANY DAN BENTUK KOMPARATIF

Any bisa dipakai sebagai kata keterangan dengan kata sifat komparatif dalam kalimat tanya, kalimat negatif dan anak kalimat yang mengandung if:

  • Credit facilities hadn’t got any better.
  • He hasn’t any more money.
  • Have you got any bigger suitcases at home?

Some tidak bisa dipakai dengan cara ini, tetapi somewhat dipakai dengan semua kata sifat, baik dalam bentuk komparatif maupun bukan, dalam kalimat tanya dan kalimat berita:

  • Harry is somewhat tired.
  • It seems to be somewhat difficult.
  • Won’t he be somewhat annyoed?

IF ONLY

Phrasa ini bisa mengawali kalimat yang menyatakan keinginan.

Gagasan pada waktu sekarang:

  • If only she worked harder!
  • If only we could find a policeman!

Gagasan pada waktu yang akan datang:

  • If only she would say ‘yes’!

Gagasan pada waktu lampau:

  • If only we had helped them!

RATHER THAN

Phrasa ini dipakai bila menyatakan pilihan di antara dua kemungkinan:

  • He wants me rather than anyone else to work for him.
  • I would prefer to read a novel rather than a play.

LATIHAN

1. Isikanlah some atau any:

  1. I’m affraid there isn’t …… one here who can help.
  2. There are …… books on the table but I can’t see …… cigarettes.
  3. Please have …… more to eat.
  4. I’m sorry I can’t eat …… more.
  5. I saw …… of the students I wanted but I didn’t see …… of the teachers.
  6. Would you give me …… more help tomorrow evening? (Mengharapkan jawaban ‘Yes’.)
  7. We can’t ask him to do …… more. Can we do …… ourselves?
  8. Didn’t he gave you …… of my notes last week? I asked him to. (Mengharapkan jawaban ‘No’).
  9. If it gets …… bigger it will break.
  10. Waiter! Can I have …… water, please?

2. Isikanlah somebody/one/thing/where, atau anybody/one/thing/where:

  1. I can’t see him ……
  2. Will you give me …… I want for Christmas?
  3. That’s easy …… can do it!
  4. She doesn’t agree with …… you say.
  5. Don’t forget to bring …… food that we all like.
  6. I’m sure he must be …… in the house.
  7. Is he expecting …… from the Home Office to meet him? (Mengharapkan jawaban ‘Yes’).
  8. He told me …… was coming to see me.
  9. I will do …… you want me to.
  10. I’m sure we’re alone. Let’s see! Is …… there?

3. Isikanlah some of, any of, atau somehwat:

  1. …… the suggestion he made were ridiculous.
  2. Choose the ones you like! You can take …… these books away with you.
  3. I don’t think English is getting …… better.
  4. …… the carriages were damaged in the crash.
  5. These pears are …… expensive.
  6. No, he didn’t lose …… his assets.
  7. He doesn’t need …… more money.
  8. …… those ties will do.
  9. Would you like …… my cigarettes?
  10. Don’t you think this is …… difficult?

 

Written by 5jtpbln

November 4, 2010 at 10:10 am

Posted in Pelajaran

One Response

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    August 9, 2012 at 5:13 pm


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