Belajar Bahasa Inggris

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Belajar Bahasa Inggris – Pelajaran 35

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KOSAKATA

  • candidate = calon
  • constituency = jumlah pemilih
  • contest (kata benda) = kontes
  • contrast (kata benda dan kata kerja) = kontras
  • debate (kata benda dan kata kerja) = perdebatan
  • develop (kata kerja) = memperkembangkan
  • elect (kata kerja) = memilih
  • election = pemilihan
  • engineer = insinyur
  • General Election = Pemelihan Umum
  • ghost (kata benda) = hantu
  • major (kata sifat) = besar
  • main (kata sifat) – utama
  • miner = buruh tambang
  • officer = perwira
  • television = televisi
  • the House = Majelis Rendah
  • the Commons = Majelis Rendah
  • official = pegawai
  • party (political) = partai politik
  • politics = politik
  • popular = populer
  • present (kata kerja) = mempertunjukkan
  • prefesion = jabatan
  • profesional = ahli
  • rival (kata kerja dan kata benda) = saingan
  • seat (parliamentary) = kursi (dalam parlemen)
  • sort (kata benda) = macam
  • struggle (kata kerja dan kata benda) = bergulat, pergulatan, perebutan

UNGKAPAN

  • All sort of … (Segala macam… ). Contoh: All sots of people live in London.
  • Ex-officeer. (Mantan Perwira).
  • Ex-goverment official. (Mantan pegawai negeri).
  • Post-war. (Sesudah perang).
  • A safe constituency. (Daerah pemilihan yang aman). Contoh: Of course this is a safe constituency for the Conservatives. They are always elected here.
  • The ghost of a chance. (Harapan yang tipis sekali.) Contoh: I won’t him. I haven’t the ghost of a chance.
  • In power. (Berkuasa). Contoh: This party has been in power for ten years.

PERCAKAPAN

Harry dan Peter mengunjungi majikan Pamela, seorang AP (anggota parlemen), untuk minta nasihat mengenai cara terbaik untuk memasarkan penemuan Harry.

Harry : I know nothing about politics. I’m only a business man, so you must excuse all my questions. What sort of people become M.Ps?

M.P. : Oh, all sorts. Some of them are profesional politicians. Others are business men, minners, engineers, ex-officers, ex-goverment officials — every profesion you can think of. I myself worked on the railways before I went into the House.

Harry : But you’ve been an M.P. for long time?

M.P. : Yes, I was first elected in 1935. But then I was defeated in the post-war General Election.

Harry : And what did you do then?

M.P. : Luckily, I got back later. Only just, though. Everybody thought it was a safe constituency fot the other party, and neither I nor my rival thought I would be elected. I beat him by only three hundred votes.

Harry : But did you have only one rival?

M.P. : No, there were two others. But neither of them had the ghost of a chance.

Harry : Do you mean that in a British election, it’s usually a struggle between two main candidates?

M.P : Usually, yes. We have two major parties. Either of them can be elected. Sometimes they don’t win by every many seats, either.

Harry : I see. And how long does it take an M.P. to become a minister?

M.P. : Oh, that varies. Most of us never do.

Harry : I suppose it depends on whether your party’s in power or not, or whether your particular ideas are popular.

M.P. : Yes, that sort of thing.

Harry : I must come and listen to a debate one day. Neither my son, Peter, nor I have done so.

M.P. : Neither had until I was elected. I used to live so far from London.

Harry : So the first time you actually went into the Commons was as an M.P.?

M.P. : That’s right. I remember the first time I walked in I was with two of the oldest M.Ps. in the House, one on either side. It was certainly a contrast.

Harry : (Menyela). Well, we must be getting along. Thank you so much for your advice about my umbrella.

M.P. : Not at al — I do think it’s worth trying this television contest. If they like your idea you may win some useful capital.

Harry : A lot will depend on how I present my plans for developing my invention.

M.P. : It will.

Harry : In that case I must defenitely visit the Commons and see how you members make your speeches there. You know, I’ve never made a speech in my life!

CATATAN
EITHER DAN NEITHER

Either bisa berarti ‘no matter which of two‘. Either bisa dipakai sendiri, diikuti sebuah kata benda, atau dalam bentuk ‘either of‘.

  • Either train qoes to London.
  • Either of the trains goes to London.
  • Either goes to London.

Neither pemakaiannya persis sama tapi dalam kalimat negatif:

  • Neither train goes to London.
  • Neither of the trains goes to London.
  • Neither goes to London.

Either menunjukkan alternatif:

  • The officer must be either short or tall.
  • The official will chose either you or your friend.
  • She will drink either tea or coffee.

Neiter, tentu saja, merupakan bentuk negatifnya:

  • The official will choose neither you nor your friend.
  • She will drink neither tea nor coffee.
  • Neither I or my rival thought I would be elected.

Either kadang-kadang berarti ‘each of two‘:

  • There were two cars on either side of the road.
  • I had an M.P. on either side.
  • He had a girl on either arm.

Perhatikan bahwa either adalah bentuk tunggal. Bandingkan dengan both yang dalam hal ini artinya sama:

  • There were cars on both side of the road.
  • There were M.Ps. on both sides.

Either dipakai dengan not berarti ‘also‘:

  • They don’t win by many seats either.
  • My rival’s not politician, and I’m not either.
  • He hasn’t seen much television and I haven’t either.

Neither atau nor bisa dipakai di sini sebagai pengganti not either. Tetapi, perhatikanlah bahwa neither atau nor harus diletakkan di awal kalimat atau phrasa dan bahwa letak subyek dan kata kerja dibalik, kata kerja di dahulukan.

  • My rival’s not a politician and nor am I.
  • Harry hasn’t listened to a debate and neither has Peter.
  • He hasn’t seen much television and nor have I.

Neither biasanya dipakai dengan cara ini hanya dengan phrasa pendek dan terutama sebagai tambahan pada kalimat negatif:

  • “She can’t go.” “Neither can I.”
  • “They didn’t visit the Commons.” “Neither did we.”
  • “He hasn’t got a big house.” “Nor have we.”

Pendek kata, tambahan pada kalimat negatif dalam bahasa Inggris bisa mengunakan tiga bentuk:

Pernyataan negatif:

  • She can’t go.

Tambahan:

  • Nor can I.
  • Neither can I.
  • I can’t either.

Menjawab pertanyaan which?:

  • Which (of many) do you want? None.
  • Which (of two) do you want? Neither. Either.

AWALAN EX-POST- PRE-

Dalam bahasa Inggris kita kadang-kadang menggunakan awalan Latin post- dengan arti ‘after‘:  The post-war General Election.

Ex- berarti ‘former‘: He is an ex-officer.

Pre- berarti ‘before‘: The pre-war General Election.

Tetapi, awalan-awalan ini hanya dipakai dengan kata-kata tertentu dan terdengar aneh jika dipakai terlalu umum.

OFFICIAL DAN OFFICER

Jangan mencampuradukkan kedua kata ini:

Officer : pada anggkatan darat, angkatan laut, dan sebagainya.
Official : pada administrasi pemerintah.

Parlemen di Inggris mempunyai dua majelis:

  • The (House of) Commons.
  • The (House of) Lords.

Tetapi, seandainya kita hanya mengatakan the House, biasanya yang kita maksud adalah the Commons.

LATIHAN

1. Berilah jawaban negatif, dengan sepatah kata saja pada pertanyaan berikut: (Lihat juga catatan pada Pelajaran 34).

  1. Which of the two do you want?
  2. Which of Dicken’s novels have you read?
  3. Are you living in London or Paris?
  4. Who did you see at the cinema?
  5. What did you do last night?
  6. How many new words have you learnt?
  7. Which of all these umbrellas do you want?
  8. Which half is bigger?
  9. Who saw the television contest?
  10. Who did you see in the House.

2. Tambahlah pertanyaan-pertanyaan pendek dengan menggunakan (a) either dan (b) neither dengan saran dalam kurung:

Contoh: He wasn’t late (the teacher).
a. Neither was the teacher.
b. The teacher wasn’t either.

  1. Dogs can’t speak English. (cats).
  2. He isn’t tall (strong).
  3. This train doesn’t go to London. (this one.)
  4. Tuesday’s debate wasn’t very good. (Wednesday’s).
  5. I didn’t win the election. (my friend).
  6. The candidate hasn’t the ghost of a chance. (you).
  7. This isn’t a safe constituency. (that).
  8. He mustn’t be rude to the official. (she).
  9. The official didn’t work on the railways. (the engineer).
  10. The general shouldn’t be in power. (minister).

3. Isikanlah either atau neither dalam kalimat-kalimat berikut:

  1. There were a lot of trees on …… side of the road.
  2. He wasn’t elected ……
  3. …… speech was very good.
  4. You can buy …… the cat or the kitten.
  5. The officer didn’t like politicians …… did the business man.
  6. …… the miner nor the engineer had a chance of winning.
  7. …… of these parties is very good.
  8. The cat’s claws weren’t cut ……
  9. You can put the cigarettes in …… box.
  10. He didn’t make his speech …… did his friend.

4. Tuliskanlah lagi kalimat-kalimat di bawah ini, dengan menggunakan either …… or:

  1. He came on Monday or Tuesday.
  2. You can have apples and pears.
  3. They can sell it wholesale or retail.
  4. The M.P. must be persuasive or strong.
  5. Give him a fivepenny piece and a tenpenny piece.

5. Tulislah lagi kalimat-kalimat berikut ini dengan menggunakan neither …… nor:

  1. He isn’t engaged or married.
  2. They can’t give you information or advice.
  3. This furniture isn’t traditional or beautiful.
  4. This lorry driver isn’t polite or clever.
  5. He didn’t interfere or interrupt in any way.

 

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Written by 5jtpbln

November 6, 2010 at 5:23 am

Posted in Pelajaran

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