Belajar Bahasa Inggris

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Belajar Bahasa Inggris – Pelajaran 6

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KOSAKATA

  • argue = memperdebatkan
  • baggage = barang
  • confess (kata kerja) = mengakui
  • confuse (kata kerja) = mencampur adukkan
  • die (kata kerja) = meninggal
  • double room = kamar untuk dua orang
  • film (kata benda) = film
  • free (kata sifat) = kosong
  • hopeless = tidak dapat diharapkan
  • lift (kata benda) = lift
  • nearby = dekat
  • overlook (kata kerja) = menghadap
  • post (kata kerja) = mengeposkan
  • pronounce (kata kerja) = mengucapkan
  • receive (kata kerja) menerima
  • receptionist = penerima tamu
  • reply (kata kerja) = menjawab
  • reserved (kata kerja) = memesan
  • seal (kata kerja) = menutup (dengan lem lak dan sejenisnya)
  • spell (kata kerja) = mengeja
  • square (open space in town) (kata benda) = alun-alun
  • stick (kata kerja) = menempelkan
  • tourist = wisatawan
  • vacant = kosong
  • visitor = pengunjung, tamu
  • way (manner) = cara

UNGKAPAN

  • From time to time. (Kadang-kadang, sekali-sekali) Contoh: I visit my brother from time to time.
  • One moment. (Sebentar) Contoh: “Let’s go!” “One moment, I must finish this letter.”
  • At least. (Sekurang-kurangnya). Contoh: He is at least fifty.
  • By return. (Dengan segera) Contoh: He answered my letter by return.
  • Let me see. (Sebentar!) Contoh “What’s the time?” Let me see. It’s 6.30.
  • Oh, dear! (Astaga, aduh). Contoh: Oh dear! I’ve lost my umbrella!
  • What it is? What’s the matter? (Apa itu? Ada ada?)
  • How can I help confusing them? (Bagaimana koq saya jadi mencampur adukkanya?).

Perhatikan bahwa kata kerja yang diletakkan sesudah help yang dipakai dalam arti ini, berakhiran ing. (to help di sini berarti menahan).

PERCAKAPAN

Barbara dan Harry tiba di hotel mereka.

Barbara : No, darling, I don’t confuse things easily

Harry : Well, you do from time to time.

Harry : (Kepada resepsionis). Have you a room reserved for Sallis please?

Receptionist : One moment, please, sir.

Barbara : Oh, I do hope it’s the room I wanted. They have a double room which overlooks the park. That’s what I asked for – it’s the best room they have.

Receptionist : (Kepada Harry). Sallis, did you say, sir? I’m affraid we have no room reserved for Mr. Sallis here.

Barbara : But didn’t you get the letter I wrote?

Receptionist : I’m sorry madam, we didn’t.

Barbara : But I posted it at least a week ago.

Receptionist : If we’d received it, you would have had a reply. We always answer letter by return.

Peter : Are you sure you posted the letter, mother?

Barbara : Of course I am! I remember sticking the stamps on and sealing it.

Harry : Well, we won’t argue. Have you any other rooms vacant?

Receptionist : Let me see! There’s the one by the lift on the second floor – Number 260. I think it was still free this afternoon.

Harry : Oh, good!

Receptionist : No. No. 260’s taken. I’m affraid we’re full at this time of the year, sir. You could fill a couple of trains with all the tourist and baggage that have arrived only today!

Barbara : Oh, dear, what are we going to do?

Receptionist : Well, if we can help in any other way. The Gloucester Hotel is always –

Barbara : Gloucester? Did you say Gloucester?

Harry : What’s the matter?

Barbara : There was the Gloucester Hotel and – the Leicester Hotel, on the other side of the square.

Harry : Which did you write to?

Barbara : Well – I must confess – I think it was the Lescester.

Harry : Oh, darling, you really are hopeless.

Barbara : I’m sorry. These names are so strange, and they are pronounced quite differently from the way they’re spelt. How can I help confusing them?

Harry : You must learn them, darling – that’s all!

CATATAN
KATA GANTI PENGHUBUNG: THAT, WHICH, DAN WHO

Who, (dan whom) dipakai sebagai kata ganti penghubung untuk orang, dan which dipakai untuk kata ganti benda.

He is the man who came yesterday.
The man whom I saw is here.
The book which I read is there.

That dapat dipergunakan sebagai pengganti which dan who. Namun berbeda dengan which dan who, that dipakai untuk membatasi satu benda atau orang dari benda-benda atau orang-orang lainnya. Perhatikan perbedaan antara kedua kalimat ini: My brother, who is in Australia, sent me this book. dan My brother that is in Australia sent me this book.

Who dalam kalimat pertama memperkenalkan non-defining clause: sekedar memberi keterangan tambahan tentang kakak pengarang: ia ada di Australia. Di tinjau dari kalimat ini saja, mungkin ia adalah kakak pengarang satu-satunya. (Clause = anak kalimat; defening: yang memberikan penjelasan).

That dalam kalimat kedua memperkenalkan defining clause: membedakan satu diantara beberapa benda atau orang (define = membatasi).

Jadi kesimpulannya, pengarang tersebut mempunyai beberapa kakak, tetapi yang diutamakan ialah kakaknya yang ada di Australia.

Jadi which dan who dipakai pada non-defining clause dan pada anak kalimat yang hanya bersifat deskriptif (memberi gambaran)

The house, which is beautiful, stands near the river.
Keats, who was an English writer, died in 1821.

Perhatikan bahwa anak kalimat semacam itu terpisah dari bagian kalimat lainnya karena adanya koma, sedangkan pada defining clause tidak.

Kapan that harus dipakai

Menurut persetujuan, that biasanya dipakai sebagai pengganti which dan who pada anak kalimat yang memberikan penjelasan dan harus dipakai dalam keadaan berikut:

  1. Setelah kata pembukaan, It is ….. , It was …. , dan sebagainya. I do hope it’s the room that I wanted. It wasn’t the food the he dislike but the hard beds.
  2. Sesudah superlatif (bentuk paling), sesudah kata only (satu-satunya), all (semua), dan every (setiap). It’s the best room that they have. He’s the only Costums Officer that I’ve ever meet. She believed every word that he said.
  3. Bila kata ganti penghubung tersebut mengganti barang dan orang: The tourist and baggage that arrive here today. The people and events that are described in this book.

Menghilangkan kata ganti penghubung

Dalam contoh-contoh di atas, kata ganti penghubungnya bisa dihilangkan. Hal ini disebabkan karena kata ganti tersebut bukan subyek anak kalimat:

The man (whom) I saw is here.
The book (which) I read is there.
Didn’t you get the letter (that) I wrote?
She believed every word (that) he said.
It’s the best room (that) they have.

Tetapi dalam kalimat-kalimat berikut kata ganti tersebut juga sebagai subyek, maka dari itu tidak bisa dihilangkan:

They have a double room which overlooks the park.
The business man, who talked to you yesterday, has two cars.
He was the only guest that arrived on time.

What dalam kalimat positif

Dalam kalimat positif, what mempunyai arti (apa) yang.

That’s what I asked for.
She gave him what he wanted.

Kata one dan ones

Kata-kata ganti ini dipakai bila kita ingin menghindari pengulangan kata:

“Have you a room vacant?”
“There’s the only by the lift on the second floor.”
I like this car better than the one you bought.

BILANGAN

Perhatikan bahwa bila berbicara tentang bilangan yang terdiri dari tiga angka, kita kerap kali memisahkan ketiga angka tersebut. Room 260 dapat dikatakan Room two sixty, atau Room two hundred and sisty, bahkan dapat dikatakan Room two-six-O.

KATA DEPAN

to stick stamps on a letter.
in any other ways.
on the other of the square.
differently from.

KATA KERJA TIDAK BERATURAN

PRESENT PAST PERFECT
to learn I learn I learnt I have learnt
to spell I spell I spellt I have spellt
to stick I stick I stuck I have stuck
to write I write I wrote I have wrote

LATIHAN

1. Isilah dengan kata ganti penghubung yang diperlukan (non-defining):

  1. My uncle …. visit us every year, is arriving tomorrow.
  2. The hotel …. has more than 200 rooms, is on the corner of the square.
  3. The room …. was vacant, overlooked Piccadically Circus.
  4. The visitor …. was German, spoke English very well.
  5. The tourist celebrated his birthday …. was yesterday, in Paris.
  6. The balloon …. was yellow.
  7. Mrs. Robinson …. was exhausted, slept on the floor.
  8. The couple …. had their baggage, felt hopeless.

2. Isilah titik-titik berikut dengan kata ganti tertentu yang perlu:

  1. The pen …. I was using was hers.
  2. Did you read the book …. I wrote?
  3. The only stamp …. was stuck on fell of.
  4. The English writer ….  died in Rome was called John Keats.
  5. The tailor …. makes these excellent suits lives in a small house.
  6. She was the only wife …. really loved Henry VIII.
  7. The woman …. couldn’t help telling the truth has lost her friends.
  8. All the ships …. arrived last night have now left.

3. Gabungkan kalimat-kalimat berikut dengan menggunakan defining dan non-defining relative. Bila keduanya mungkin, tulislah dua-duanya, tunjukkan mana yang defining dan mana yang non-defining. Anda mungkin harus mengubah sendiri kalimat-kalimat tersebut. Jangan lupa komanya. Contoh:

The man came into the room, He was standing by the door.
The man, who was standing by the door, came into the room. (Non defining)
The man who was standing by the door came into the room. (Defining)

  1. The meal was delicious. You served it yesterday.
  2. Yesterday I meet Mr. Smith. He has just come back from Australia.
  3. Have you lost the book? I gave it to you last week.
  4. The train is late. It should have arrived an hour ago.
  5. What was the name of the film? You saw it last night.
  6. Please bring me the letters. They were on that table.
  7. The invention is wonderful. It is his.
  8. This is the inflatable umbrella. I used it in England last month.

4. Tambahkan kata ganti yang cocok. Letakkan kata ganti itu ke dalam kurung bila kata ganti itu boleh dihilangkan. Bila ada dua kemungkinan, tulislah kedua kemungkinan itu. Contoh:

Have you seen the book …. I was reading?
Have you seen the book (that) I was reading?

  1. This was the house …. Jack built.
  2. Mr. Smith …. works at the Post Office, has very little money.
  3. What is the name of the girl …. lives next door?
  4. He’s the tallest man …. I’ve ever seen.
  5. Bring me all the books …. are on the table.

5. Gantilah kata-kata yang di cetak tebal dengan kata-kata yang tersedia dalam percakapan:

  1. I’m sorry you’re too late.
  2. What’s the matter?
  3. How can I avoid confusing them?
  4. They have a room for two which overlooks the park.
  5. He answered my letter immediately.

6. Isilah dengan kata-kata yang benar:

  1. He writes to me …. time …. time.
  2. Please stick the stamps …. the envelope for me.
  3. You can’t learn English …. any other way.
  4. The curch is there, and I live …. the other side of the street.
  5. Dogs eat differently …. most men and women.


    Written by 5jtpbln

    October 6, 2010 at 5:02 am

    Posted in Pelajaran

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