Belajar Bahasa Inggris

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Belajar Bahasa Inggris – Pelajaran 19

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KOSAKATA

  • accelerator = pedal gas (mobil)
  • amazing = mengherankan
  • average (kata sifat dan kata kerja) = rata-rata
  • disadvantage = kejelekan
  • engine (car) = mesin (mobil)
  • exhaust (kata kerja) = knalpot
  • faint (kata sifat) = lemah
  • gears (car) = persnelling (mobil)
  • knocking (kata kerja) (car noise) = suara berdetak-detak (suara mobil)
  • loose (kata sifat) = goyah, longgar
  • mechanic = montir
  • midday = tengah hari
  • model (make of car) = model (bentuk mobil)
  • speed (kata kerja) = kecepatan
  • springs (car) = per, pegas
  • steering (kata kerja) = sistem kemudinya
  • steering-wheel = kemudi
  • stiff (kata sifat) = kaku

UNGKAPAN

  • A 1938 model. (Model tahun 1938). Contoh: It looks new but it’s a 1938 model.
  • To make a journey. (Mengadakan perjalanan).
  • Thirtry miles an hour (30 m.p.h.) (Tiga puluh mil per jam).
  • A road test. (Test jalan). Contoh: All old cars should have regular road tests.
  • Our purpose. (Dengan sengaja). Contoh: I did it on purpose.
  • To go wrong. (Rusak). Contoh: The brakes are all right but the steering’s gone wrong.
  • Neither did I. (Saya juga tidak). Contoh: I didn’t like the play. Neither did I.

PERCAKAPAN

Pamela dan keluarga Sallis sedang mengendarai mobil tua menuju rumah orang tua Pamela.

Pamela : This car’s over twenty years old. It’s a 1938 model. But it goes all right. We’ll be in Salisbury before midday.

Peter : Then we should reach you parent’s house by five o’clock.

Barbara : That means we’ll have been travelling for about seven hours.

Harry : I think it’s amazing that we can make such a long journey in such an old car.

Pamela : Last Saturday I drove eighty miles in three hours — an average speed of just under thirty miles an hour.

Peter : In England, you know, people are much fonder of old cars than in other countries. Of course there’s a road test now for old cars. But this car passed the road test.

Harry : H’m!…

Barbara : Isn’t the steering-wheel a little loose?

Pamela : No — no. The steering’s all right. The only disadvantage is that the gears are a little stiff and the accelerator sometimes sticks. But one gets used to it. (dor).

Barbara : What was that?

Pamela : Oh, just the exhaust. Don’t worry. I hope you’re comfortable there at the back. The springs are good for such an old car, aren’t they?

Harry : Very good — for such an old car. (dor)

Barbara : Oh, dear. These noise are little sudden, aren’t they? (Suara berdetak lemah).

Harry : What’s that knocking in the engine?

Pamela : (Dengan gembira). Oh, it does that from time to time. But nothing serious. (Suara berdetak masih terus).

Harry : I’m sure it isn ‘t good for engine.

Barbara : Oh, the car’s stopping! Did you do that on purpose, Pamela?

Pamela : Not exactly. I think something’s gone wrong. But don’t worry. Peter’s excellent mechanic, arren’t you, darling?

Barbara : I didn’t know you were a mechanic, Peter.

Peter : No. Neither did I!

CATATAN
KATA DEPAN DAN UNGKAPAN-UNGKAPAN LAIN
UNTUK MENYATAKAN WAKTU

Anda harus berhati-hati jangan mencampur adukkan cara memakai kata depan at, on, in yang menunjukkan waktu, dengan yang menunjukkan tempat. Meskipun kata-katanya sama, tapi cara pemakaiannya berbeda, bila dihubungkan dengan waktu.

At

(a) At menyatakan saat dan waktu yang dinyatakan dengan jam:

  • He came in at that moment.
  • I shall see you at ten past six.
  • We meet at the end of the concert. (At a certain time).
  • He said we couldn’t be there at six.

(b) At dipakai dengan ‘night‘.

  • I can’t sleep at night.
  • We met at night.

On

(a) On menyatakan hari:

  • I shall see you on Saturday.
  • She gave him a present on Christmas Day.
  • The farmer arrived on 14th of January.

(b) On dipakai bila kita berbicara mengenai waktu pagi, siang, sore, dan malam tertentu:

  • I saw him on Satuday night.
  • Come here on Monday morning.
  • He left on the night you went out.

In

(a) In menyatakan nama bulan, tahun, dan musim.

  • In winter we often have fog.
  • He was born in 1932.
  • We take our holiday in June.
  • I was at school in 1944.

(b) In digunakan untuk bagian-bagian hari yang tidak ditentukan secara tegas; untuk bagian-bagian malam, in tidak digunakan:

  • The lady went for a walk in the morning.
  • In the afternoon we learnt English.
  • He goes to the cinema in the evening.

(c) In menyatakan sesuatu yang terjadi dalam jangka waktu tertentu:

  • I drove a hundred miles in three hours.
  • We shall meet you there in ten minutes.
  • In ten years he will be fifty.
  • The book will be finished in a month.
  • You shall have it in a minute.

By

By berarti “tidak lebih dari dan mungkin sebelum.” By hampir sama dengan in bila dipakai untuk menyatakan sesuatu yang terjadi pada suatu waktu tertentu: (I shall be here in an hour). Tetapi, in dipakai dengan waktu (jam, hari, dan sebagainya), sedangkan by hanya dipakai dengan waktu tertentu atau dengan waktu yang ditunjukkan oleh penanggalan: (I shall be here by five o’clock).

  • We shall reach your parent’s house by five o’clock.
  • I shall have finished it by five.
  • You must give it to me by next Saturday.
  • The new invention will be ready by 1965.
  • You will have your passport by the end of the month.

For

For dipakai untuk menunjukkan jangka waktu berlangsungnya sesuatu:

  • I lived there for seven months.
  • He worked hard for three days.
  • The porter slept for six hours.

During

During hampir sama dengan for, tetapi biasanya for dipakai dengan hari, bulan dan sebagainya yang dihitung dengan angka, sedangkan during dipakai dengan waktu yang tidak tertentu. Bandingkan:

  • I sleept for one day.
  • I slept during the day.
  • I lived there for two months.
  • I lived there during my holidays.

Dalam kalimat-kalimat tersebut, during dapat, tapi tidak perlu mengandung arti bahwa saya tidur atau tinggal di situ sepanjang waktu. Sementara for mengandung arti berlangsung atau tinggal agak lama, during lebih berarti ‘pada suatu ketika’ atau ‘selama jangka waktu tertentu’:

  • He came in during the meeting.
  • During our journey we stopped several times.
  • It began raining during the day.
  • He called on me during the morning.

Ago

Tepat sekali membicarakan kata keterangan ago di sini. Kata ini menandai suatu waktu tertentu pada masa lalu.

  • My employer retired two months ago.
  • He only put up his umbrella a minute ago.
  • We did some research two years ago.
  • The lift broke down a week ago.

Sincere

Kata depan since menunjukkan jangka waktu dari sekarang atau dari saat berbicara, mundur ke suatu waktu tertentu pada masa lalu. Jangan lupa bahwa since yang menghubungkan masa lalu dan sekarang seperti itu, selalu dihubungkan dengan bentuk selesai sekarang (present perfect tense).

  • We have done nothing since January.
  • She hasn’t seen him since June 14th.
  • They haven’t changed it since last year.

Over dan under

Dipakai dengan waktu, over berarti ‘lebih dari’:

  • This car is over twenty years old.
  • I have lived here for over twenty years.
  • He stayed with us for over twenty minutes.

Begitu pula, dipakai dengan waktu under berarti ‘kurang dari’:

  • An average speed of just under thirty miles an hour.
  • He ran a mile under four minutes.
  • He is under forty.

The dengan ungkapan-ungkapan untuk waktu

Perhatikan bahwa pada nama hari, minggu, bulan dan sebagainya, the dihilangkan, kecuali bila kata-kata itu disertai penjelasan:

  • I shall see you on Saturday.
  • You should go abroad in June.
  • Yesterday afternoon I went to the cinema.

Tetapi

  • We shall come on the Saturday after next.
  • The Monday before Christmas was very cold.
  • The first Tuesday in June was beautiful.

Next dan last

Begitu pula, the kita hilangkan pada next dan last, bila kata-kata itu dipakai dengan hari, minggu, atau bulan, kecuali bila kata-kata itu disertai penjelasan. Perhatikan juga bahwa kita tidak biasa memakai kata depan di muka next dan last bila the tidak dipakai.

Tidak tertentu:

  • Last Saturday I went to “Macbeth.”
  • Next year we shall buy a new car.
  • Next June they will be in another house.

Tertentu:

  • He died in the last year of last century.
  • He died on the last Wednesday of the last month of 1962.

KATA DEPAN

  • The springs are good for such an old car.
  • It isn’t good for the engine.

LATIHAN

1. Isilah dengan kata depan yang benar:

  1. I’ll see you …. Wednesday …. six o’clock.
  2. Shall we go …. the morning or …. night.
  3. He came …. Monday night and left …. the end of the week.
  4. I can drive to the office …. ten minutes.
  5. I hope to finish the book …. a week.
  6. I’ll try to be there …. six-thirty and will certainly be there …. seven.
  7. He worked well …. three days but then grew lazy.
  8. It’s …. (more than) thirty miles to Combridge but we can get there …. an hour.
  9. I stayed …. France …. three months.
  10. The engineer did nothing …. two days.
  11. We shall drive …. 40 m.p.h. and get there …. seven.
  12. He was born …. six o’clock, …. Tuesday …. the morning.
  13. …. December 1st, when he arrived …. a storm.
  14. You must drive at …. 30 m.p.h. in towns.

2. Tambahkan for dan since dalam kalimat-kalimat berikut:

  1. I haven’t seen him …. over a week.
  2. I haven’t seen him …. last Saturday,
  3. She hasn’t written to me …. I was at College.
  4. Haven’t been to England …. ten years.
  5. i haven’t been to France …. 1956.
  6. Mary hasn’t driven a car …. thtere three months.
  7. I haven’t seen him …. he telephoned me.
  8. We’ve been working …. early this morning.

3. Sempurnakan kalimat-kalimat berikut dengan pilihan-pilihan yang diberikan, jika perlu dengan menggunakan kata depan yang tepat.
Contoh :  Can you meet me ….
(a) tomorrow    (b) Thursday.
Can you meet me tomorrow?
Can you meet me on Thursday?

  1. I haven’t driven a car …. (a) 1948  (b) ten years.
  2. We should get there …. (a) hal an hour (b) nine-thirty.
  3. Come again …. (a) next week (b) the morning.
  4. It happened …. (a) night (b) the morning of 15th June.
  5. They lived there …. (a) their holidays (b) two months.
  6. I saw him …. (a) last Saturday (b) Sunday.
  7. The engine stopped …. (a) six o’clock (b) our journey.
  8. I only saw him …. (a) an hour (b) June.

 

Written by 5jtpbln

October 20, 2010 at 4:08 am

Posted in Pelajaran

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