Belajar Bahasa Inggris

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Belajar Bahasa Inggris – Pelajaran 21

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KOSAKATA

  • beast = binatang
  • daisy = bunga aster
  • dictionary = kamus
  • distant = jauh
  • drive (kata benda) = perjalanan
  • fruit tree = pohon buah-buahan
  • lawn = halaman berumput
  • petal = daun bunga
  • pick (kata kerja) = memetik
  • plant (kata benda) = tanaman
  • pond = kolam
  • rare = jarang
  • rose (kata benda) = bunga mawara
  • stalk (kata benda) = tangkai
  • sunflower = bunga matahari
  • uncomfortable = tidak menyenangkan
  • variesty = macam, ragam
  • voice = suara
  • waterlily = bunga teratai

UNGKAPAN

  • Goodness! (Masya Allah!). Contoh: What an extraordinary story!
  • I’m terrible sorry. (Saya menyesal sekali). Contoh: I’m terribly sorry, but I’ve lost your umbrella.
  • To the left of. (Di sebelah kiri). Contoh: The path to the left of the road.

PERCAKAPAN

Begitu sampai, Barbara dan Harry melihat-lihat taman milik Keluarga Hardcastle sambil menunggu Pamela yang sedang menjemput orang tuanya.

Harry : Where have Peter and Pamela gone?

Barbara : I think they’ve just gone in to find Mr. and Mrs. Hardcastle. Isn’t this a lovely garden? I feel tired out, but one look at that makes up for that long uncomfortable drive.

Harry : I don’t know the names of half these flowers. Of course that’s rose and I know these are daisies on the lawn. Otherwise, I give up.

Barbara : Those are water-lilies on the pond. I can’t make out what those are, though, with the blue petals and long stalks.

Harry : I don’t know. There seem to be about three of four different varieties of each flower.

Barbara : You know, we should save up a lot of money and buy a house with a really beautiful garden with fruit trees and rare plants.

Harry : You’d have to work hard, though, to keep it up.

Barbara : Goodness! Look at that flower. Over there to the left of the path. It’s beautiful. I’d love to pick it.

Harry : I don’t think you should.

Barbara : No one’ll see. There, I’ve done it.

Peter : (Suara dari jauh). Here they are!

Barbara : Oh dear.

Pamela : Mr. and Mrs. Sallis. This is my father.

Mr. Hardcastle : How d’you do?

Barbara : Oh, how do you do? I’m terrible sorry. I’ve just picked one of your flower.

Mr. Hardcastle : Oh, that’s all right. (Tertawa). There’s no danger. You may be the Beauty, Mrs. Sallis, but I’m not the Beast! Come into the house…

CATATAN
PARTIKEL KATA KETERANGAN

Dalam pelajaran-pelajaran bahasa Inggris sebelumnya, kita coba menghindari beberapa kekeliruan yang seringkali terjadi sehubungan dengan kata depan bahasa Inggris dengan melihat bermacam-macam arti kata depan sesuai dengan fungsinya. Pertama kata depan yang menyatakan tempat (Pelajaran 9), kemudian gerakan (Pelajaran 12), lalu waktu (Pelajaran 19). Dalam pelajaran kali ini kita akan melihat beberapa kata tadi, tetapi bukan sebagai kata depan, melainkan sebagai partikel kata keterangan.

Sering sangat sukar mengetahui perbedaan antara kata depan dan partikel kata keterangan. Pada umumnya perbedaan ini tidak perlu diketahui murid: lebih penting, murid mengetahui arti kata-kata tersebut dalam hubungannya dengan konteks daripada mengetahui apa fungsi kata-kata tersebut.

Namun mengetahui perbedaan antara kata depan dan partikel kata keterangan sebenarnya penting juga, sebab:

  1. Perbedaan tersebut membantu murid mengetahui pemakaian kata-kata seperti on, in, over dan sebagainya; tanpa mengetahui perbedaan tersebut berbagai macam arti dari kata-kata itu nampaknya tidak masuk akal.
  2. Susunan kata dengan partikel kata keterangan berbeda dengan susunan kata dengan kata depan.
  3. Begitu banyak partikel kata keterangan yang dipakai semata-mata sebagai ungkapan dan kalau mengetahui hal ini pelajar tidak akan keliru dengan menerjemahkan secara harfiah (kata demi kata).

Perbedaan antara kata depan dan partikel kata keterangan

Kata depan berpengaruh terhadap kata benda yang mengikutinya:

  • He went into the house.
  • She stayed at home.
  • Tha cat jumped over the flowers.

Dalam kalimat-kalimat ini, into secara langsung berhubungan dengan home, at dengan home, over dengan flowers.

Sebaliknya, partikel kata keterangan tidak berpengaruh pada kata benda yang mengikutinya, tetapi kata itu sendiri merupakan bagian dari kata kerja:

  • They’ve just gone in to find you.
  • Put on your coat.
  • Take off your hat.

Dalam kalimat-kalimat tadi, in tidak ada pengaruhnya terhadap kata benda. On tidak ada hubungannya dengan coat: kata itu hanya menunjukkan macam kegiatan apa yang sedang berlangsung. Sama halnya dengan off yang tidak dihubungkan dengan hat: off di sini dihubungkan dengan kata kerja take. Sebenarnya, kita bisa menganggap go in, put on, take off, sebagai kata kerja majemuk.

Penganti kata kerja

Dalam bahasa Inggris, kerap kali sebuah kata kerja bisa diganti oleh kata kerja lain dengan partikel kata keterangan atau kata depan:

I returned the book to him.
I gave him back the book.

The porter entered the house.
The porter went into the house.

The tourist descended the hill.
The tourist went down the hill.

I left London.
I came away from London.

Pemakaian sebagai ungkapan

Kadang-kadang kata kerja dengan partikel kata keterangan mempunyai arti yang berbeda dari arti masing-masing kata:

  • I give up. It’s too difficult. (menyerah).
  • This makes up for that uncomfortable drive. (menjadi penawar).
  • I can’t make out the house in the fog. (melihat).
  • We should save up a lot of money. (menghemat).
  • You will have to keep the garden up, if you want it to look beautiful. (melihara, merawat).

Arti harfiah dan arti sebenarnya

Banyak kata kerja dengan partikel kata keterangan mempuyai beberapa arti, kadang-kadang baik arti harfiah maupun arti sebenarnya.

The plane took off and flew away.
He took of his hat when the lady passed.

Look up there! Can you see the aeroplane?
He look up the word in the dictionary.

Look out! There’s a car coming!
She looked out of the window.

I kept up the garden.
Keep up your good work! Then you’ll certainly pass your exam.

She made up her face with powder and lipstick.
He madu up a story which nobody believed.
Your kind welcome make up for all the difficulties we had on our journey here.

Susunan kata

(a) Obyek kata benda: Bila obyek dari kata kerja terdiri dari kata benda, partikel kata keterangan bisa ditempatkan sebelum atau sesudah kata benda tersebut.

  • He put his hat on. Atau He put on his hat.
  • She could make out the house. Atau She could make the house out.

Tetapi bila obyek dari kata kerja itu panjang, misalnya terdiri dari sebuah phrasa atau anak kalimat yang panjang, partikel kata keterangan lebih baik ditempatkan sebelumnya:

He tired his father out. Atau He tired out his father. Tetapi He tired out his father who had already had a long day’s work.

(b) Obyek kata ganti: Bila obyek dari kata kerja adalah kata ganti, maka partikel kata keterangan harus ditempatkan sesudah kata ganti tersebut:

  • He tired her out.
  • I gave it up.
  • Save it up for the next year.
  • He could put it on.
  • We could make it out clearly.

Sebaliknya, kata depan ditempatkan sebelum kata benda atau kata ganti:

  • He gave it to me.
  • Don’t shout at me.
  • We ran up it.
  • He jumped over us.

Kata sifat dan kata benda

Partikel-partikel kata keterangan bisa dipakai dengan phrasa atau kata sifat. Ini terutama berlaku untuk away dan off.

  • That country is a long way off.
  • He went to live for away.

On/to the leftright

On the leftright of biasanya menekankan kiri atau kanan dalam daerah (tempat) tertentu:

  • In England we drive on the left of the road.

To the left atau right biasanya menyatakan gerakan atau hubungan dengan suatu tempat atau orang.

  • Look to the left.
  • To the left of the road there was a field.

Phrasa kata kerja (ringkasan)

To go in.
To tire out.

Contoh: She was tired out after her walk.

To make up for.
Contoh: A good sleep makes up for a tiring day.

To give up.
Contoh: I have given up smoking.
I give up. Tel me the answer.

To make out.
Contoh: I can see that car but I can’t make out its number.

To save up.
Contoh: She saved up enough to buy a car.

To keep up.
Contoh: The gardener kept up the lawn.

LATIHAN

1. Gantilah kata-kata yang dicetak tebal dengan kata kerja dan partikel kata keterangan yang sama artinya: Ke suatu tempat atau orang.

Contoh : The old lady descendad slowly.
The old lady went down slowly.

  1. I have returned the book you gave me last Saturday.
  2. Your kindness compensates for the unpleasant things you said earlier.
  3. We normally rise at eight o’clock.
  4. I had to rise my umbrella.
  5. We were invited to enter.
  6. He invents wonderful stories.
  7. The plane left the ground at 8 p.m.
  8. He asked the lady in front to remove her hat.
  9. I was tired by mind-day.
  10. She put cosmetic on her face.

2. Ubahlah kata-kata yang di cetak tebal menjadi kata ganti, lalu tulislah lagi kalimat tersebut pada tempat yang benar. Jangan lupa di sini perbedaan antara kata depan dan partikel kata keterangan.

Contoh: I put up my umbrella.
I put it up.

  1. He gave up hope.
  2. The car drove under the bridge.
  3. He looked after the old man until he was well again.
  4. The students went into the classroom.
  5. I couldn’t make out the name.
  6. I looked up the word in a dictionary.
  7. I gave the present back.
  8. We saved up the money in ten years.
  9. He stuck a stamp on.
  10. We got through the crowd.
  11. The soldier couldn’t make out the enemy.
  12. The writer made up a story.

3. Letakkan obyek dalam kurung pada tempat yang seharusnya. Jika obyek tersebut bisa ditempatkan di dua tempat, tulislah keduanya:

Contoh: I looked up (it) in the dictionary.
I looked it up in the dictionary.

  1. He took off (his tie).
  2. He took (his tie which was decorated with red roses) off.
  3. He took off (it).
  4. The boys jumped (the wall) over.
  5. He gave up (working).
  6. We kept up (it).
  7. we kept (the garden in our country houses) up.
  8. The dog came (the drive) up.
  9. The dog came up (it).
  10. Please make up (that) for.
  11. Did you make (that story) up?
  12. The boy (his teacher) tired out.
  13. My son often tires out (me).
  14. He looked (her) at.
  15. Put (the hat I gave you for your birthday) on.

Written by 5jtpbln

October 21, 2010 at 7:18 am

Posted in Pelajaran

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