Belajar Bahasa Inggris

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Belajar Bahasa Inggris – Pelajaran 22

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  • appear (kata kerja) = tampil
  • character (personage in story) = pelaku (tokoh dalam sebuah cerita)
  • circumstances = keadaan
  • comic (kata sifat) = lucu
  • contribution = sumbangan
  • detective storry = cerita detektif
  • job = pekerjaan
  • negatif (kata sifat) = negatif
  • novel (kata benda) = novel
  • plot (story) (kata benda) = jalan cerita
  • profesion = profesi
  • publish (kata kerja) = menerbitkan
  • short story = cerita pendek
  • theme = tema
  • tragedy = tragedi

Kosakata tentang Hukum

  • barrister = pengacara
  • The criminal Court = pengadilan perkara-perkara pidana
  • law = hukum/undang-undang
  • libel = fitnah
  • to practise (as a solicitor) = berpraktek (sebagai pengacara)
  • solicitor = pengacara


  • By the way. (Ngomong-ngomong). Contoh: By the way, did you get my letter?


Barbara dan Harry mendengarkan Tuan dan Nyonya Hardcastle yang sedang membicarakan tentang diri mereka sendiri.

Mr. Hardcastle : Ys, that’s right. I practice as a solicitor and then retired.

Harry : Was it an interesting job?

Mr. Hardcastle : Well — er —more of profession than a job. Yes — I enjoyed it. Of course I was working in an office but I certainly met a lot of interesting people, often in the strangest circumstances.

Harry : Did you often appear in the Criminal Court?

Mr. Hardcastle : Sometimes. But in England that’s more the work of a barrister.

Barbara : And you write novels, Mrs. Hardcastle?

Mrs. Hardcastle : Oh, well — I have published two. And a detective story.

Mr. Hardcastle : You were just finishing a short story when the Sallises arrived, weren’t you, dear?

Mrs. Hardcastle : No — I was just begining one. A tragedy with a very complicated plot.

Mr. Hardcastle : But you often write very comic stories. I always say your best novel is “The Policeman was Smoking on Sunday” — a real comedy.

Mrs. Hardcastle : I don’t agree.

Barbara : Are you characters based on people you’ve met?

Mrs. Hardcastle : Yes — most of them.

Harry : Oh, dear — perhaps we’ll find ourselves in print in a year or two.

Mr. Hardcastle : Well, if you do, you needn’t worry! I was going to say earlier that my only real contribution to my wife’s novels is knowing the law of libel. Rather a negative contribution, I’m affraid, but useful.


Seperti yang mungkin Anda ketahui, kita memakai bentuk sedang bila ingin menyatakan sesuatu yang sedang berlangsung sekarang, dan bukan bila ingin melukiskan kegiatan yang sedang dilakukan karena kebiasaan:

Bukan: I am speaking to you know. Melainkan: He speaks at church every Sunday.
Bukan: He is reading a detective story at this moment. Melainkan: He reads a lot of detective stories.

Begitu pula kita menggunakan bentuk lampau sedang bila kita ingin menyatakan sesuatu yang sedang berlangsung pada waktu lampau:

  • The solicitor was studying the law of libel.
  • She was writing a tragedy.
  • The policeman was smoking on Sunday.

Tetapi kita tidak menggunakan bentuk ini bila kita terutama menaruh perhatian pada selesainya suatu kegiatan. Semua kalimat di atas bisa diubah menjadi bentuk lampau biasa, kalau kita ingin melukiskannya sebagai kegiatan yang telah selesai:

  • The solicitor studied the law of libel.
  • She wrote a tragedy.
  • The policeman smoked on Sunday.

Kegiatan yang terputus

Bentuk lampau sedang sering dipakai untuk melukiskan sesuatu yang berlangsung ketika kegiatan lain terjadi:

  • The teacher was reading when the student came in.
  • I saw him when he was coming up the drive.
  • She was picking daisies when he first spoke to her.

Kegiatan yang terjadinya bersamaan

Bentuk lampau sedang bisa pula dipakai bila dua kegiatan berlangsung pada waktu yang bersamaan:

  • While he was reading she was writing.
  • He was speaking and she was smoking.

Kegiatan yang berurutan

Karena bentuk lampau sedang tidak pernah menyatakan kegiatan yang selesai, bentuk ini tidak bisa dipakai bila satu kegiatan terjadi setelah kegiatan lain:

  • She wrote and published a novel.
  • He got up dan then washed himself.
  • We saved up a lot of money and then spent it.

Kegiatan yang dilakukan karena kebiasaan

Karena bentuk lampau sedang menyatakan sesuatu yang berlangsung pada waktu lampau tanpa kegiatan yang menyela, maka biasanya bentuk ini tidak dipakai untuk kegiatan yang dilakukan karena kebiasaan:

  • We ate mutton every day.
  • They drove into town once a week.
  • Our horse ate oats.

Tetapi, kadang-kadang bentuk lampau sedang bisa dipakai dengan always:

  • He was always asking stupid questions.
  • The gears were always going wrong.

Was/were going to

Seperti Anda ketahui, bentuk akan datang bisa dinyatakan dengan going to:

I am going to Oxford tomorrow.

Was/were going to bisa dipakai untuk menyatakan keinginan atau kemungkinan di masa lampau yang tidak dilaksanakan:

  • I was going to speak about it earlier (but I didn’t).
  • We were going to have a bumper crop but it rained too much.
  • He was going to publish my book (but he didn’t).

Kalimat tak langsung

Bila kalimat langsung menjadi kalimat tidak langsung, biasanya bentuk sedang sekarang menjadi bentuk sedang lampau.

Langsung        : “I am leaving tomorrow,” she said.
Tak langsung  : She said she was leaving the next day.


Berhati-hatilah jangan mencampuradukkan kata-kata berikut:

Novel : Buku yang sifatnya khayalan.
Short story : Karangan pendek yang bersifat khayalan.
History : Laporan mengenai hal-hal yang terjadi pada masa lalu.
Story : Biasanya merupakan cerita hasil khayalan, baik lisan maupun tertulis.


  • Character based on people.
  • To find oneself in print.
  • In the strangest circumstances.


to begin I begin I began I have begun


1. Tulislah dengan benar kata kerja yang terdapat di dalam kurung menjadi bentuk lampau yang sedang:

  1. I (talk) to John when you telephoned.
  2. I wrote some letters while I (wait).
  3. I called at ten o’clock but you (sleep).
  4. He jumped off the train while it (move).
  5. I (listen) to the radio when the picture fell down.
  6. The plane (take off) when the accident occured.
  7. She (look up) a word in the dictionary when the dog bit her.
  8. She always (talk) about her journey to America.
  9. While she (sing) I put my hands on my ears.
  10. The millionaire (save up) the money when I first knew him.

2. Sempurnakan kata-kata kerja dalam kurung menjadi bentuk lampau atau lampau sedang:

  1. He feel asleep while he (drive).
  2. I just (open) the box when my employer came in.
  3. He (take off) his coat when the sun (come out).
  4. The accident (occur) while he (drive) to London.
  5. I (read) the newspaper when I (hear) a strange sound.
  6. It (start) to rain while we (play) tennis.
  7. The steering went wrong while the car (travel) at 80 m.p.h.
  8. First he (telephone) and then (write) a letter.
  9. Mr. Jones, who (sit) in the corner of the restaurant having his luch, (call) me to his table.
  10. I’m affraid I (break) it while I (clean) it.

3. Isikanlah ungkapan-ungkapan berikut ke dalam kalimat-kalimat yang paling cocok. Ubahlah bila perlu: a bumper crop; times have changed; miles from anywhere; these days; please help yourself; to go wrong; goodness! by the way.

  1. The car broke down and we found ourselves ….
  2. …. ! You gave me a fright!
  3. …. I forgot to tell you about John.
  4. …. to potatoes.
  5. We had a …. of wheat last year.
  6. Wars were not so terrible, then, but ….
  7. The car …. but the mechanic soon repaired it.
  8. Food is more expensive ….

Written by 5jtpbln

October 22, 2010 at 3:59 am

Posted in Pelajaran

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