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Belajar Bahasa Inggris – Pelajaran 38

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KOSAKATA

  • admit = mengakui
  • blind (kata kerja) = membutakan
  • clearly (obviously) = dengan jelas, nyata
  • continual = terus menerus
  • dismiss = melepas
  • directly (immediately) = dengan segera
  • fail = gagal
  • fair (kata sifat) = adil
  • fairly (1) justly; (2) quite = (1) tepat, dengan adil; (2) sunguh
  • fantastic = fantastis
  • fault (kata benda) = kesalahan
  • judgement = keputusan
  • lately = akhir-akhir ini
  • lively (kata sifat dan kata keterangan) = bersemangat
  • plum-pudding = pudding prem
  • pretty (kata sifat dan kata keterangan) = cantik
  • realistic = realistis
  • responsibility = tanggung jawab
  • route (kata benda) = rute
  • set out (kata kerja) = berangkat
  • shock (kata benda) = terkejut
  • shortly = dengan segera
  • solid = keras
  • traffic jam = kemacetan lalu lintas
  • unimaginative = tak berfantasi
  • usual = biasa

UNGKAPAN

  • It’s time to go. (Sudah waktunya untuk pergi). Contoh: It’s time to go if we don’t to arrive late.
  • A hard time. (Mengalami kesukaran). Contoh: They had a hard time with too much work and too little money.
  • There’s time. (Masih ada waktu). Contoh: We needn’t go yet. There’s time for another drink.
  • As usual. (Seperti biasa). Contoh: He’s late as usual. He never arrives on time.

PERCAPAKAN

Barbara dan Peter sedang membicarakan kegagalan Harry di televisi.

Barbara : Well, we shan’t have to wait long now. It’s almost time to go. Two more days and we’ll be flying fast, through clear, blue skies — I hope — on the direct route home!

Peter : Yes, I’m sure you’ll enjoy getting back. Father’s certainly had a hard time with these continual difficulties.

Barbara : Well, what can you expect in England? The people here are like plum-pudding—solid and unimaginative.

Peter : Well, that’s a hard judgement. I don’t think you’re being quite fair.

Barbara : Of course I am. Surely it’s pretty obvious, isn’t it? Harry’s idea is excellent. He’s worked very hard to get accepted. And clearly no one’s had the imagination to recognise it.

Peter : I don’t know. There are some people who’ve helped a lot.

Barbara : Yes, but they’re not the people who are directly involved. They don’t have to accept responsibility. Harry’s failed. And it isn’t really his fault.

Peter : Of course, it’s early yet to say that he’s failed completely. There’s still time. After all, the results of the television contest haven’t been announced. It’s fairly unlikely that he’ll win anything, I admit, but you can hardly be so certain about it.

Barbara : Why not? D’you really think they’re going to give him $5,000 after he hit that short, little television man? We must be realistic!

Peter : Well, perhaps — Oh, look! Here’s Pamela. You’re late as usual, sweetheart.

Pamela : I know. I’m sorry. I set out very early, really I did. But I got cought in a traffic jam. And it’s a long way. As you know, my car isn’t exactly fast.

Peter : Anyway, you’re looking very pretty. We were discussing Harry and the English.

Pamela : Poor Harry! He’s really been depressed lately. And I thought he talked so well, in such a lively way, on television. Where is he?

Barbara : Oh, he’ll be here shortly. He said he’d come down directly he’d finished writing a few letters.

Peter : Here he is. Now the whole family’s here.

Harry : (Terengah-engah). Barbara! I’ve got it.

Barbara : Got what?

Harry : The prize! The $5,000!

Peter, Pamela, Barbara : No!

Harry : Isn’t wonderful! They telephoned.

Barbara : But that’s fantastic! In spite of hitting the interviewer!

Harry : But that’s the whole point. It was because I hit him —

Barbara  : No! How?

Harry : Well, you see, it didn’t hurt him at all. It gave him a slight shock of course. But as my umbrella’s made of rubber —

Peter : You mean an old-fashioned umbrella might have blinded him —

Harry : That’s right. It showed that my umbrella was superior in yet another way.

Pamela : Congratulations! It’s wonderful! We are so worried but now you’ve really made us feel good.

Peter : Well, what do you think of the English now, Mother?

Barbara : (Dengan gembira). Oh, this is a wonderful country!

Peter : You mean they’re not just like plum-puddings after all?

Barbara : Oh, no!

Peter : (Mengejek). Amazing, isn’t it, how quickly the English seen to change! (Mereka berdua tertawa).

CATATAN
PEMBENTUKAN KATA KETERANGAN

Seperti yang mungkin anda ingat, kata keterangan cara kerap kali dibentuk dari kata sifat dengan menambah huruf ly: quick = quickly; certain = certainly; solid = solidly; dan sebagainya. Mungkin anda juga ingat bahwa kebanyakan kata sifat yang berakhiran le kehilangan e jika dibentuk menjadi kata keterangan: able = ably; gentle = gently; dan seterusnya. Selain itu, banyak kata sifat yang berakhiran –y, maka –y nya berubah menjadi i sebelum di tambah ly: pretty = prettily; happy = happily; dan sebagainya.

AKHIRAN LY

Jika sebuah kata sifat sudah berakhiran huruf ly, tidaklah mudah untuk mengulangi akhiran tersebut, bila membentuk kata keterangan. Maka kebanyakan kata sifat semacam ini tidak mempunyai bentuk kata keterangan. Sebagai gantinya, kita terpaksa menggunakan kata-kata itu dalam sebuah phrasa yang menyatakan cara: in a ……. way/manner:

kata sifat               : What a lively kitten!
kata keterangan  : He talked in such a lively way.
kata sifat               : Although he is only twenty he is a very fatherly person.
kata keterangan  : He always behaves in a fatherly manner.
kata sifat               : Your son is very manly.
kata keterangan  : He fought back in a manly way.

FAST, EARLY, LONG

Ada juga kata-kata yang bentuknya tetap sama, baik sebagai kata sifat maupun sebagai kata keterangan:

kata sifat               : My car isn’t exactly fast.
kata keterangan   : We’ll be flying fast.
kata sifat               : This is the early train.
kata keterangan   : I set out very early.

Kata long berlaku untuk waktu bila dipakai sebagai kata keterangan:

kata sifat               : It’s a long way.
kata keterangan   : We shan’t have to wait long now.

HARD, LATE, DIRECT

Kata-kata ini mempunyai dua bentuk keterangan. Yang satu mempunyai satu arti, sama dengan kata sifatnya. Yang lain, dengan tambahan ly, mempunyai arti lain:

kata sifat               : That’s a hard judgment.
kata keterangan   : Harry’s worked very hard.
kata keterangan   : You can hardly (scarcely) be so certain about it.
kata sifat               : This is a late train.
kata keterangan   : This train always arrives late.
kata sifat               : Harry’s depressed lately.
kata sifat               : The restaurant is on the direct house home.
kata keterangan   : I shall send it to you direct.
kata keterangan   : He said he’d come down directly (very soon).

SHORT

Short mempunyai arti harfiah sebagai kata sifat: He hit that short, little television man. dan sebagai kata keterangan: He threw the stone at the house but it felt short into the garden. Shortly mempunyai arti lain yaitu ‘soon‘: I think he’ll be here shortly.

FAIR

Fair mempunyai tiga arti:

  1. Blond (pirang): disini fair adalah kata sifat: My mother has fair hair.
  2. Just (adil, tepat) : disini kata sifat tersebut biasanya ditambah ly untuk membentuk kata keterangan. kata sifat : The fight was not fair. kata keterangan: He fought fairly.
  3. Rather (sungguh) : disini hanya dipakai sebagai kata keterangan: It’s fairly unlikely that he’ll win anything.

PRETTY

Sebagai kata sifat, pretty mempunyai arti harfiah, dan kata keterangan dalam arti ini ditambah ly:

kata sifat                : You’re looking very pretty.
kata keterangan   : She dresses prettily.

Tetapi pretty juga sebagai kata keterangan dengan arti yang berbeda. Disini pretty berarti ‘quite‘, ‘fairly‘ (sungguh): Surely it’s pretty obvious.

CLEAR

Clear dan clearly mempunyai dua arti yang berbeda:

(a) easily seen (through):

kata sifat                : We’ll fly though clear, blue skies.
kata keterangan   : He saw the house clearly.

(b) obvious:

kata sifat                : It’s clear that he doesn’t like his work.
kata keterangan   : Clearly no one’s had the imagination to recognise it.

TASTE, SMELL, FEEL

Di belakang taste, smell, dan feel (tetapi bukan see dan hear), dipakai kata sifat, bukan kata keterangan:

  • The egg smells bad.
  • This cottage pie tastes wonderful.
  • You’ve made us all feel so good.

Perhatikan bahwa feel well mempunyai arti lain: I feel well today.

LATIHAN

1. Isikan kata keterangan berikut dalam kalimat yang cocok: direct, directly; pretty, prettily; late, lately; short, shortly; hard, hardly.

  1. (a) …… he had finished he went outside. (b) He sent the letter …… to me.
  2. (a) …… She sang very …… (b) He’s …… certain he will come tomorrow.
  3. (a) She always arrives …… (b) …… I have not been feeling well.
  4. (a) The ball he threw fell …… (b) They will be arriving ……
  5. (a) He fought …… and won. (b) I have …… any money left.

2. Ubahlah kata sifat berikut menjadi kata keterangan atau phrasa kata keterangan. Tetaplah pada arti pokoknya.

  1. slow.
  2. impressive.
  3. beautiful.
  4. easy.
  5. long.
  6. irritable.
  7. amazing.
  8. early.
  9. distant.
  10. hard.
  11. immediate.
  12. lively.
  13. sweet.
  14. decorative.
  15. fast.
  16. extraordinary.
  17. horrible.

Sekarang pakailah masing-masing kata keterangan atau phrasa keterangan itu dalam kalimat.

3. Dari daftar kata berikut ini, pilihlah kata yang tepat untuk mengisi masing-masing kalimat: hard, hardly, late, lately, fairly, short, shortly, long, lively, directly.

  1. We must not be …… for the party.
  2. John is …… good but not as good as Peter.
  3. He tried …… but failed.
  4. They are certainly a …… and pleasant couple.
  5. How …… have you been waiting?
  6. I had …… left the house when it started raining.
  7. They will announce the result ……
  8. Have you seen any good films …… ?
  9. This is a …… easy exercise. It is not very long.
  10. He’ll send it …… you ask him to.

 

Written by 5jtpbln

November 9, 2010 at 7:26 am

Posted in Pelajaran

One Response

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  1. this is british english. what most people know, hear and learn is american english

    lulu

    June 3, 2011 at 8:52 am


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