Belajar Bahasa Inggris

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Belajar Bahasa Inggris – Pelajaran 39

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KOSAKATA

  • backing (support) (kata benda) = dukungan (bantuan)
  • competition (rivalry) = kompetisi (persaingan)
  • ditribute = menyebarkan
  • hard-headed = kepala batu
  • hint at (kata kerja) = menyarankan
  • idle (kata sifat) = menganggur
  • impulsive = impulsif
  • lean (kata kerja) = bersandar
  • organization = organisasi
  • partnership = perseroan
  • perseverance = ketabahan hati
  • reunion = reuni
  • tax (kata benda) = pajak
  • triumph (kata benda dan kata kerja) = kemenangan, menang

UNGKAPAN

  • To come off. (Berhasil). Contoh: You idea come off very well.
  • I can’t tell you how (glad, etc). (Tak terlukiskan betapa (gembira, dan sebagainya)}.
  • To come round. (Agree). (Menyetujui). Contoh: If you talk to him long enough he may come round.
  • To change your mind. (Mengubah rencana mu). Contoh: He changed his mind and decided not to go to Rome after all.
  • Nothing succeeds like success. (Orang yang bernasib baik, mendapat keuntungan beruntun).
  • To keep up with the times. (Mengikuti jaman). Contoh: Your business must keep with the times or no one will buy from you.
  • The idle rich. (Kaum kaya yang menganggur.)

PERCAKAPAN

Harry sedang mengadakan pesta untuk merayakan keberhasilannya.

Harry : Hello, Mr. Hardcastle. This is really is a reunion of old friends!

Mr. Hardcastle : Isn’t it? I can’t tell you how glad I am that your idea has come off. You certainly deserve it, with your amazing preseverance.

Harry : Well, thank you. Anyway, one good result is that Pamela and Peter will soon be married.

Mr. Hardcastle : Yes, I’m so glad you can give Peter a job in your new organization. Now of course, he’ll be able to stay and work in England.

Harry : Yes, and luckily my wife’s come round to the idea.

Pamela : Hello, Mr. Sallis.

Harry : Oh, hello, Pamela! Hello, Peter!

Pamela : Isn’t this a wonderful celebration! You know, Mr. Sallis, your television interviewer has arrived and he looks very well and unhurt.

Peter : And Pamela’s employer, the M.P. is here. He’s so pleased because he thought of the idea of the television contest.

Harry : I invited hard-headed director of the umbrella firm. You know, the one who said that Englishmen had always put up their own umbrellas unaided. But I don’t he’s come. Oh, yes, there he is. Look, he’s leaning on a walking stick and talking to Barbara. Well, what a surprise!

Mr. Hardcastle : By the way, that business friend of mine whom who had lunch with seems to have changed his mind about coming with you. He said the other day that he thought he might well put a few thousands into your enterprise

Peter : Well! Nothing succeeds like success! Oh, hello. Mother —

Barbara : Harry — I’ve just been talking to the director of that umbrella firm.

Harry : And?

Barbara : D’you know that he hinted at some sort partnership? He said that he just wanted to see what sort of a man you were, and that now that you’ve really got your idea started he thinks you may be just the man for him!

Harry : So he wouldn’t mind distributing my product alongside his traditional umbrellas! What a revolutions! What a triumph!

Barbara : He said something about keeping up with the times.

Peter : In fact, he’s afraid of your competion.

Barbara : But it really is wonderful. It’s just the sort of backing you need.

Harry : It certainly is — after such a hard struggle.

Peter : Yes, but now you’ve shown how able you are!

Barbara : By hitting a television interviewer in the face!

Harry : That was certainly the best thing I ever did.

Peter : And now I can stay and work in England!

Pamela : And now we can get married!

Harry : And now thousands of people will be able to carry thier umbrellas in thier pockets!

Peter : Just think of it. We’ll soon be joining the idle rich.

Harry : We’ll soon be helping the country paying the most enormous taxes!

Barbara : Dear Harry! I’m so glad you’re impulsive and clumsy. I’m so glat you have your hands about when you talk! What would we have done if you didn’t?

CATATAN
KATA-KATA YANG DIPAKAI SEBAGAI KATA BENDA MAUPUN SEBAGAI KATA SIFAT

Dalam pelajaran ini kita akan mempelajari bagaimana kata kerja yang sama dipakai sebagai jenis kata lain dalam bahasa Inggris. Menurut cara pemakaiannya dalam kalimat, ada beberapa kata yang bisa dipakai sebagai kata benda atau kata sifat. Misalnya kata business. Kata ini bisa dipakai sebagai kata benda:

He had a large business in London.

Tetapi kata ini bisa dipakai sebagai kata sifat:

How is that business friend you had lunch with?

Anda akan menjumpai banyak contoh lain dari kata-kata yang biasanya menjadi kata benda tetapi boleh juga digunakan sebagai kata sifat. Kata-kata tersebut bisa melukiskan:

(a) Sesuatu terbuat dari apa:

  • Look at the cat’s fur. (kata benda)
  • There are many fur coats in this shop. (kata sifat)
  • The boy threw a stone through the window. (kata benda)
  • He jumped over the stone wall. (kata sifat)
  • The glass is full of water. (kata benda)
  • This house has glass walls. (kata sifat)

(b) Sesuatu dipakai untuk apa:

  • I only some cigarettes. (kata benda)
  • Please give me the cigarettes box. (kata sifat)

(c) Banyak hubungan yang lain:

  • Come home this evening. (kata benda)
  • He went to the Home Office. (kata sifat)
  • I like your electric fire. (kata benda)
  • This house has no fire escape. (kata sifat)
  • She has a modern kitchen. (kata benda)
  • Shut the kitchen door please. (kata sifat)

KATA-KATA YANG DIHUBUNGKAN DENGAN TANDA PENGHUBUNG DAN KATA MAJEMUK

Kadang-kadang kata-kata dihubungkan dengan tanda penghubung, walaupun tidak ada aturan yang pasti untuk ini. Bila di antara dua kata ada tanda penghubungnya, tekanan biasanya diberikan pada kata pertama, sedangkan bila tanpa tanda penghubung, tekanan diberikan pada kedua kata tersebut. Bandingkan: ‘stone’ wall; ‘fur’ coat; dan ‘book-case; ‘fruit-garden; ‘fire-engine.

  • He moved the ‘book-case to the other end of the room.
  • Call the ‘fire-engine!
  • What a beautiful ‘fruit-garden!

Kadang-kadang yang dulu merupakan dua kata terpisah, sekarang digabungkan menjadi satu dan tekanan diberikan pada kata pertama:

  • She is  a ‘housewife.
  • He is a ‘shopkeeper.
  • Have you read the ‘newspaper?

KATA KERJA YANG BERFUNGSI SEBAGAI KATA SIFAT

Kata kerja kerap kali bisa dipakai sebagai kata sifat bila kata kerja tersebut ditambah ing (walking, smoking, dan sebagainya). Tetapi, disini kita harus berhati-hati sebab ada dua buah bentuk kata kerja berakhiran ing: gerund atau kata kerja yang berfungsi sebagai kata benda, dan present participle. Bandingkan:

Gerund atau verbal noun: Walking in the country is pleasant.

Present participle: Look at that walking doll.

Jika digunakan sebagai kata sifat, bentuk gerund itu menggunakan tanda penghubung dan menunjukkan tujuan, fungsi atau profesi. Kata pertamanya diberi tekanan:

  • He is a ‘working-man.
  • Come into the ‘dinning-room.
  • He is leaning on a ‘walking-room.

Present participle tidak diikuti oleh tanda penghubung dan menyatakan aktivitas yang sedang dikerjakan atau kualitas; present participle dan kata berikutnya diberi tekanan:

  • You deserve it with your ‘amazing ‘perseverance.
  • I looked at the ‘burning ‘house.
  • This is the ‘Leaning ‘Tower of Pisa.

Seperti yang mungkin sudah anda ketahui, past participle bisa pula dipakai sebagai kata sifat:

  • The tired man.
  • The dimissed secretary.
  • He is very depreseed.

BLUE-EYED DAN SEBAGAINYA

Suatu jenis kata sifat yang susunannya agak aneh  ini dipakai untuk melukiskan keadaan fisik. Bagian-bagiannya yaitu kata sifat + tanda penghubung + bagian dari badan atau pakaian. Contoh:

  • blue-eyed.
  • black-haired.
  • dark-suited.

Ini hanya dipakai untuk deskripsi fisik yang sangat umum. Kadang-kadang juga dipakai dalam arti kiasan: hard-headed, hard-hearted. Contoh: I invited that hard-headed umbrella firm director.

KATA SIFAT – KATA BENDA

Kadang-kadang kata yang paling umum dipakai sebagai kata sifat dapat dipakai sebagai kata benda yang menunjukkan sebuah golongan orang atau benda: the rich, the poor, the good, the bad, the blind. Tentu saja kata-kata itu boleh didahului oleh kata sifat lain.

  • We’ll soon be joining the idle rich.
  • You must think of the poor.
  • He’s given some money to the blind.

The good dan the bad bisa dipakai tidak hanya untuk orang tetapi juga untuk sifat yang abstrak:

  • Orang : The good shall have thier reward.
  • Sifat : The good in him will triumph.
  • Orang : Get rid of the bad and employ the good.
  • Sifat : I don’t believe there is much bad in him.

KATA GANTI EMPUNYA DAN BAGIAN BADAN SERTA PAKAIAN

Dalam bahasa Inggris kita harus menggunakan kata ganti empunya untuk pakaian dan bagian-bagian badan, terutama bila pakian atau bagian-bagian badan tersebut kepunyaan pokok kalimat itu dan juga pelengkap kata kerjanya:

  • I’m so glad you wave you hands about.
  • He had his hair cut.
  • She put on her coat.
  • He raised his hat.

Kita dapat menggunakan the sebagai pengganti my, your, his dan sebagainya:

  1. Bila pakaian atau bagian badan itu kepunyaan obyek langsung kata kerja: She look him by the hand.
  2. Bila kita memberi pembatasan pada pakaian atau bagian badan itu, biasanya dengan sebuah anak kalimat: She put on the coat she had bought.

TO CHANGE

Perhatiakan beberapa penggunaan to change:

  • He changed his suit.
  • He changed his money.
  • He changed his mind.

LATIHAN

1. Berikut ini nyatakan sebagai kata benda majemuk. Contoh: A hat made of cloth: a cloth hat.

  1. A suit worn in the country,
  2. Shoes used in winter.
  3. A man who plays football.
  4. A man who drives a taxi.
  5. A cup used for coffee.
  6. A street down which traffic can go only one way.
  7. A fire which is burning wood.
  8. A man who belongs to the police.
  9. A master who teaches at a school.
  10. A coat used when it is raining.
  11. The porter of an hotel.
  12. A bottle used for milk.
  13. An office which administers taxes.
  14. A certain kind of bird which is black.
  15. A town at the mouth of the river Ply.
  16. A chair which has arms.
  17. A table where you write.
  18. A room you sleep in.
  19. A man whose prefesion is lending money.
  20. A place where buses stop.

2. Isikanlah the atau his:

  1. I met a lot of ….. English people the other day.
  2. He put on ….. shoes he had just bought.
  3. ….. French are well-known for their cooking.
  4. The old man was always very kind to ….. poor.
  5. He hurt ….. hand with a knife.
  6. ….. whiskey is a strong drink.
  7. You must help ….. blind.
  8. He has torn ….. trousers and has none left.
  9. ….. rich have to pay large taxes.
  10. ….. wealthy business men can buy large cars.
  11. If you are with ….. deaf you must speak loudly.
  12. They hit him on ….. back.
  13. He lost ….. hat.
  14. ….. virtue, apparently, has its own reward.
  15. I shall be crossing ….. Atlantic tomorrow.

3. Berikut ini nyatakan dalam bentuk pendeknya:

  1. A filmstar with blue eyes.
  2. A millionaire with a hard heart.
  3. A miner with strong arms.
  4. An official with a loud voice.
  5. A postman with flat feet.

4. Isikanlah kata depan yang benar ke dalam kalimat-kalimat berikut:

  1. The business man went red ….. the face.
  2. I heard it ….. the radio.
  3. We shall go ….. the matter tomorrow.
  4. I don’t agree ….. you ….. all due respect.
  5. All these men work ….. the railways.
  6. He only won ….. four votes.
  7. Would you speak ….. my behalf?
  8. ….. spite ….. everything I should like to go.
  9. The tourist changed his francs ….. pounds.
  10. They hadn’t a chance ….. succeeding.

 

Written by 5jtpbln

November 9, 2010 at 10:18 am

Posted in Pelajaran

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